We are scientists interested in understanding the processes driving human-mediated biological invasions, using birds as a model taxon. Our work applies a range of analytical approaches to a stage-based model of the invasion process, to identify the key factors determining which species become invasive. We are also interested in understanding the consequences of biological invasions, including new patterns in biodiversity and environmental and socio-economic impacts.

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I obtained my DPhil from the University of Oxford in 1991, and became Professor of Macroecology at the University of Birmingham in 2005. Since 2000, my research has largely focused on understanding the processes driving human-mediated biological invasions, using birds as a model taxon. The first decade of this work was summarised in a monograph published by OUP (Avian Invasions: The ecology and evolution of exotic birds), but I continue to research and publish studies on invasions, as well as macroecology, extinction and life history. I have been based at UCL since 2014 where I am Professor of Invasion Biology, but I am also officially affiliated with the Institute of Zoology at the Zoological Society of London.

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Research in the Blackburn group primarily addresses questions relating to human-mediated biological invasions. Invasions are now so pervasive that alien species are a central element of current global environmental change, and a major drain on economic resources, giving a strong incentive to understand the process that leads to a species becoming invasive.

Progress in uncovering the rules governing the invasion process has come from studies that explicitly analyse the passage of taxa through the sequential stages in the invasion pathway (transport; introduction; establishment; spread) (Blackburn et al. 2011; Trends Ecol. Evol.). Our work has identified how biases in the early part of the process can affect interpretation of success (Blackburn & Duncan 2001, J. Biogeogr.), and how modeling these biases can identify characteristics that influence establishment success (Blackburn & Duncan 2001, Nature). We have shown the importance of propagule pressure (Lockwood et al. 2005, Trends Ecol. Evol.) and cognition (Sol et al. 2005, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA) in establishment, and defined frameworks for studying the invasion process (Duncan et al. 2003, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst.; Blackburn et al. 2011, Trends Ecol. Evol.). A related interest has been extinction risk in island birds (Blackburn et al. 2004, Ecography, Duncan et al. 2013, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA), where our work includes studies on how invasive species impact on native bird extinctions on islands worldwide (Blackburn et al. 2004, Science), evidence for prehistoric hunting as a driver of extinction risk (Duncan et al. 2002, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B.), and the impact of invasions on biotic homogenization (Cassey et al. 2007, J. Biogeogr.). Much of this work is reviewed and placed in its wider context in our monograph on bird invasions (Blackburn et al. 2009, Avian Invasions. The ecology and evolution of exotic birds).

Our current research aims to continue to develop understanding of invasions, using birds as a model taxon, and particularly focusing on later stages of the pathway.  We have overseen development of a novel, spatially and temporally referenced, global data set on the distribution of all exotic bird populations worldwide. The Global Avian Invasions Atlas (or GAVIA) comprises >25,000 distribution records for >900 alien bird species (Dyer et al. 2017, Scientific Data; doi: 10.1038/sdata.2017.41), which is allowing us to explore global spatial and temporal dynamics of alien bird population introduction (Dyer et al. 2017, PLoS Biology), establishment (Redding et al. 2019, Nature), richness and spread (Dyer et al. 2016, Global Ecol. Biogeogr.; Dyer et al. 2017, PLoS Biology). Our bird data have contributed to wider studies of the growth in the occurrence of alien species (Seebens et al. 2017, Nature Comm.) and emerging alien species (Seebens et al. 2018, PNAS), and hotspots in alien species richness (Dawson et al. 2017, Nature Ecol. Evol.). We have also recently developed a method to evaluate, compare and predict the impacts of different alien species, that can be applied to impacts that occur at different levels of ecological complexity, at different spatial and temporal scales, and assessed using a range of metrics and techniques (Blackburn et al. 2014, PLoS Biology).  We are using this method to understand variation in the impacts of different alien species and higher taxa (Evans et al. 2016, Divers. Distrib.; Evans et al. 2018, Divers. Distrib.), to help inform about alien species impacts for use in conservation policy and practice (Latombe et al. 2017; Biol. Conserv.; Carboneras et al. 2018; J. Appl. Ecol.).


Current members, past members, and funded collaborators


Dr Ellie Dyer

Postdoctoral Research Assistant

Ellie is a macroecologist investigating the determinants of global patterns in alien bird assemblages. Her research interests concern topics in biodiversity, macroecology and conservation, including the biology and impacts of introduced and invasive species, but also large-scale patterns in the abundance and distribution of species more generally. Ellie has now left the group, and is currently employed by CEH.


Thalassa McMurdo Hamilton

PhD Student

Thali is studying questions concerning the utility of conservation interventions for threatened species recovery focussing on seabird management. 


Sean Jellesmark

PhD Student

Sean is studying the impact conservation makes on trends in species’ populations, as part of the EU-funded Inspire4Nature project (http://www.inspire4nature.eu)

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Angela Bartlett

London NERC DTP Student

Angela has just started her PhD supervised by Dr Jane Catford at KCL, and Tim Blackburn at UCL. She will be investigating questions around introduction biases in alien invasions.


Dr Laura Cardador

Marie Curie Research Fellow

Laura has now left the group, having been awarded a grant for a position at Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals (CREAF) in Barcelona, where she will be working with Dani Sol. Her research addresses how human-associations and within-taxon niche structure in native-ranges affect the extent to which distribution models capture the realized ecological niche of an organism.


Dr Alex Pigot

Royal Society University Research Fellow

Alex has now left the group to take up his Royal Society URF, but is staying in CBER and plans to keep working with us. Alex’s research focuses on understanding universal patterns in the distribution and diversity of life. For instance: Why do the numbers of species in ecological communities vary so dramatically across the surface of the Earth? Why are some species so rare and others so common? Why are some branches of the tree of life so much more diverse than others? Addressing these questions is challenging because the evolutionary and biogeographic processes generating large-scale patterns in diversity can rarely be observed directly. Alex’s research aims to address this by developing new quantitative models for inferring the historical dynamics of biodiversity and applying these to global datasets on species phylogenetic relationships, geographic distributions and functional traits.

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Dr Dave Redding

UKRI Innovation/ Rutherford Fellow

Dave has now left the group to take up a Fellowship, but is staying in CBER and hopefully will continue to work with us. Dave's background, prior to coming to UCL, was in conservation and evolutionary biology. After working in the conservation industry for a NGO in Africa and the RSPB in the UK, he undertook an 'Applied Ecology and Conservation' Masters degree at the University of East Anglia, Norwich. His work there on phylogenetically-informed conservation priority setting led to a PhD in Vancouver, Canada with Arne Mooers.

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Dr Tom Evans

Former PhD Student

Tom studied for his PhD in the group, entitled "Quantifying and categorising the environmental impacts of alien birds". He then left to continue his research with a Humboldt Fellowship at the Free University of Berlin.


Dr Su Shan

Former PhD student

Sushan carried out her PhD (The bird trade in Taiwan: an analysis of an Eastern pathway to biological invasion) in the group.


Dr Gemma Taylor

Former PhD Student

Congratulations to Dr Gemma Taylor, who successfully defended her thesis in November. Gemma is off to a teaching position in Hertfordshire.


Dr Pavel Pipek

Visiting Postdoc

Pavel visited for three months in 2017 from the Institute of Botany at the ASCR, Pruhonice, where his research now mainly considers the history of avian invasions in New Zealand. The work we started then is ongoing, with exciting results to come.

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Dr Phill Cassey

Associate Professor at the University of Adelaide

Phill (right) is a long term collaborator of the group's, and has co-supervised several PhD and postdoctoral research projects.


Dr Gavin Thomas

Senior Research Fellow & Royal Society Research Fellow

Gavin collaborates on our work on the phylogenetics of alien invasions (and was a postdoc with Tim Blackburn in the dim and distant past)

A full list of publications is available on my CBER IRIS website




Blackburn, T.M. & Gaston, K.J. (2021). Contribution of alien galliforms to annual variation in biomass of British birds. Biological Invasions, in press.

Evans, T., Kumschick, S., Dyer, E.E., Redding, D.W. & Blackburn, T.M. (2021). Global variation in the severity of alien bird impacts identifies regions at risk. Global Ecology & Biogeography, in press.

Holenstein, K., Simonson, W.D., Smith, K.G., Blackburn, T.M. & Charpentier, A. (2021). Non-native species surrounding protected areas influence the community of non-native species within them. Frontiers in Ecology & Evolution, 8, 625137. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2020.625137

Jellesmark, S., Ausden, M., Blackburn, T.M., Gregory, R.D., Hoffmann, M., Massimino, D., McRae, L. & Visconti, P. (2021). A counterfactual approach to measure the impact of wet grassland conservation on UK breeding bird populations. Conservation Biology, in press.

Lovell, R.S.L., Blackburn, T.M., Dyer, E.E. & Pigot, A.L. (2021). Environmental resistance predicts the spread of alien species. Nature Ecology & Evolution, in press.

Ricciardi, A., Iacarella, J.C., Aldridge, D.C., Blackburn, T.M., Carlton, J.T., Catford, J.A., Dick, J.T.A., Hulme, P.E., Jeschke, J.M., Liebhold, A.M., Lockwood, J.L., MacIsaac, H.J., Meyerson, L., Pyšek, P., Richardson, D.M., Ruiz, G.M., Simberloff, D., Vilà, M. & Wardle, D.A. (2021). Four priority areas to advance invasion science in the face of rapid environmental change. Environmental Reviews, in press.


Blackburn, T.M., Cassey, P. & Duncan, R.P. (2020). Colonization pressure: a second null model for invasion biology. Biological Invasions, 22, 1221-1233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-019-02183-7

Blackburn, T.M., Cassey, P., Lockwood, J.L., & Duncan, R.P. (2020). The relationship between propagule pressure and establishment success in alien bird populations: a re-analysis of Moulton & Cropper (2019). PeerJ, 8, e8766; https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8766

Cardador, L. & Blackburn, T.M. (2020). A global assessment of human influence on niche shifts and risk predictions of bird invasions. Global Ecology & Biogeography, in press.

Dyer, E.E., Redding, D.W., Cassey, P., Collen, B. & Blackburn, T.M. (2020). Evidence for Rapoport’s Rule and latitudinal patterns in the distribution of alien bird species. Journal of Biogeography, https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13825

Evans, T. & Blackburn, T.M. (2020). Global variation in the availability of data on the environmental impacts of alien birds. Biological Invasions, 22, 1027-1036. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-019-02153-z

Evans, T., Blackburn, T.M., Jeschke, J.M., Probert, A. & Bacher, S. (2020). Application of the Socio-Economic Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (SEICAT) to a global assessment of alien bird impacts. NeoBiota, doi: 10.3897/neobiota.62.51150.

Gibb, R., Redding, D.W., Chin, K.Q., Donnelly, C.A., Blackburn, T.M., Newbold, T., & Jones, K.E. (2020). Land use has global and systematic effects on local zoonotic host communities. Nature, 584, 398-402.

Heald, O.J.N., Fraticelli, C., Cox, S.E., Stevens, M.C.A., Faulkner, S.C., Blackburn, T.M. & Le Comber, S.C. (2020). Understanding the origins of the ring-necked parakeet in the UK. Journal of Zoology, 312, 1-11.

Kumschick, S., Bacher, S., Bertolino, S., Blackburn, T.M., Evans, T., Roy, H.E. & Smith, K.G. (2020). Appropriate uses of EICAT protocol, data and classifications. NeoBiota, doi: 10.3897/neobiota.62.51574.

Liu, X., Blackburn, T.M., Song, T., Wang, X., Huang, C. & Li, Y. (2020). Animal invaders threaten protected areas worldwide. Nature Communications, in press.

Pipek, P., Blackburn, T.M., Cassey, P., Delean, S. & Pyšek, P. (2020). Lasting the distance: The survival of alien birds shipped to New Zealand in the 19th century. Ecology & Evolution, https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6143.

Pyšek, P., Bacher, S., Kühn, I., Novoa, A., Catford, J.A., Hulme, P.E., Pergl, J., Richardson, D.M., Wilson, J.R.U. & Blackburn, T.M. (2020). MAcroecological Framework for Invasive Aliens (MAFIA): disentangling large-scale context-dependence in biological invasions. NeoBiota, doi: 10.3897/neobiota.62.52787.

Pyšek, P., Hulme, P.E., Simberloff, D., Bacher, S., Blackburn, T.M., Carlton, J.T., Dawson, W., Essl, F., Foxcroft, L.C., Genovesi, P., Jeschke, J.M., Kühn, I., Liebhold, A.M., Mandrak, N.E., Meyerson, L.A., Pauchard, A., Pergl, J., Roy, H.E., Seebens, H., van Kleunen, M., Vilà, M., Wingfield, M.J. & Richardson, D.M. (2020). Scientists’ warning on invasive species. Biological Reviews, 95, 1511-1534. doi: 10.1111/brv.12627.

Sayol, F., Steinbauer, M.J., Blackburn, T.M., Antonelli, A., & Faurby, S. (2020). Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds. Science Advances, 6, no. 49, eabb6095. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb6095

Seebens, H., Bacher, S., Blackburn, T.M., Capinha, C., Dawson, W., Dullinger, S.,   Genovesi, P., Hulme, P.E., van Kleunen, M., Kühn, I., Jeschke, J.M., Lenzner, B., Leibhold, A., Pattison, Z., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Winter, M. & Essl, F. (2020). Projecting the continental accumulation of alien species through to 2050. Global Change Biology,  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15333.

Volery, L., Blackburn, T.M., Bertolino, S., Evans, T., Genovesi, P., Kumschick, S., Roy, H.E., Smith, K.G. & Bacher, S. (2020). Improving the Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT): a summary of revisions to the framework and guidelines. NeoBiota, doi: 10.3897/neobiota.62.52723.



Blackburn, T.M. (2019). Macroecology and invasion biology. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 28, 28-32, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12838

Blackburn, T.M., Bellard, C., & Ricciardi, A. (2019). Alien versus native species as drivers of recent extinctions. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment17, 203-207. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.2020

Blackburn, T.M., Redding, D.W. & Dyer, E.E. (2019). Bergmann’s Rule in alien birds. Ecography42, 102-110. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.03750.

Cardador, L. & Blackburn, T.M. (2019). Human-habitat associations in the native distributions of alien bird species. Journal of Applied Ecology56, 1189-1199. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13351

Duncan, R.P., Cassey, P., Pigot, A.L. & Blackburn, T.M. (2019). A general model for alien species richness. Biological Invasions, 21, 2665-2677. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-019-02003-y

Heald, O.J.N., Fraticelli, C., Cox, S.E., Stevens, M.C.A., Faulkner, S.C., Blackburn, T.M. & Le Comber, S.C. (2019). Understanding the origins of the ring-necked parakeet in the UK. Journal of Zoologyhttps://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12753

Holman, L.E., Ruis, M. & Blackburn, T.M. (2019). Observations of a novel predatory gull behaviour on an invasive ascidian: a new consequence of coastal urban sprawl? Ecosphere10, e02636. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2636

Liu, X., Blackburn, T.M., Song, T., Li, X., Huang, C. & Li, Y. (2019). Risk of biological invasion on the Belt and Road. Current Biology, 29, 499-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.12.036

Pipek, P., Blackburn, T.M. & Pyšek, P. (2019). The ins and outs of acclimatisation: imports versus translocations of skylarks and starlings in 19th century New Zealand. Biological Invasions21, 1395-1413. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-018-1905-y

Redding, D.W., Pigot, A.L., Dyer, E.E., Sekerçioglu, C.H., Kark, S. & Blackburn, T.M. (2019). Location-level processes drive the establishment of alien bird populations worldwide. Nature571, 103-106. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1292-2

Roy, H.E., Bacher, S., Essl, F., Adriaens, T., Aldridge, D.C., Bishop, J.D.D., Blackburn, T.M.,Branquart, E., Brodie, J., Carboneras, C., Cook, E.J., Copp, G.H., Dean, H.J., Eilenberg, J., Gallardo, E., Garcia, M., García-Berthou, E., Genovesi, P., Hulme, P.E., Kenis, M., Kerckhof, F., Kettunen, M., Minchin, D., Nentwig, W., Nieto, A., Pergl, J., Pescott, O.L., Peyton, L., Preda, C., Rabitsch, W., Roques, A., Rorke, S.L., Scalera, R., Schindler, S., Schönrogge, K., Sewell, J., Solarz, W., Stewart, A.J.A., Tricarico, E., Vanderhoeven, S., van der Velde, G., Vilà, M., Wood, C.A. & Zenetos, A. (2019). Developing a list of invasive alien species likely to threaten biodiversity and ecosystems in the European Union. Global Change Biology25, 1032-1048. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14527



Bacher, S., Blackburn, T.M., Essl, F., Genovesi, P., Heikkilä, J., Jeschke, J.M., Jones, G., Keller, R., Kenis, M., Kueffer, C., Martinou, A., Nentwig, W., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Rabitsch, W., Richardson, D.M., Roy, H.E., Saul, W.-C., Scalera, R., Vilà, M., Wilson, J.R.U. & Kumschick, S. (2018). Socio-economic impact classification of alien taxa (SEICAT). Methods in Ecology & Evolution9, 159-168.

Blackburn, T.M.& Gaston, K.J. (2018). Abundance, biomass and energy use of native and alien breeding birds in Britain. Biological Invasions, 10.1007/s10530-018-1795-z.

Blackburn, T.M., Redding, D.W. & Dyer, E.E. (2018). Bergmann’s Rule in alien birds. Ecography, in press. DOI: 10.1111/ecog.03750.

Carboneras, C., Genovesi, P., Vila, M., Blackburn, T.M., Carrete, M., Clavero, M., D'hondt, B., Orueta, J., Gallardo, B., Geraldes, P., González-Moreno, P., Gregory, R.D., Nentwig, W., Paquet, J.-Y., Pysek, P., Rabitsch, W., Ramírez, I., Scalera, R., Tella, J.L., Walton, P. & Wynde, R. (2018). A prioritised list of invasive alien species to assist the effective implementation of EU legislation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 55, 539–547.

Cassey, P., Delean, S., Lockwood, J.L., Sadowksi, J. & Blackburn. T.M.(2018). Dissecting the null model for biological invasions: A meta-analysis of the propagule pressure effect. PLoS Biology, 16(4), e2005987.

Evans, T., Kumschick, S., Sekerçioglu, C.H., & Blackburn, T.M. (2018). Identifying the factors that determine the severity and type of alien bird impacts. Diversity & Distributions24, 800-810.

Evans, T., Pigot, A., Kumschick, S., Sekerçioglu, C.H., & Blackburn, T.M. (2018). Determinants of Data Deficiency in the impacts of alien bird species. Ecography41, 1401-1410.

Pigot, A.L., Cassey, P. & Blackburn, T.M. (2018). How to incorporate information on propagule pressure in the analysis of alien establishment success. Methods in Ecology & Evolution9, 1097 - 1108.

Pigot, A.L., Dyer, E.E., Redding, D.W., Cassey, P., Thomas, G.H. & Blackburn, T.M. (2018). Introduction history and phylogenetic association in the geographic range size of alien species. Global Ecology and Biogeography, in press.

Seebens, H., Blackburn, T.M.,Dyer, E.E., Genovesi, P., Hulme, P.E., Jeschke, J.M., Pagad, S., Pyšek, P., van Kleunen, M., Winter, M., Ansong, M., Arianoutsou, M., Bacher, S., Blasius, B., Brockerhof, E.G., Brundu, G., Capinha, C., Causton, C.E., Celesti-Grapow, L., Dawson, W., Dullinger, S., Economo, E.P., Fuentes, N., Guénard, B., Jäger, H., Kartesz, J., Kenis, M., Kühn, I., Lenzner, B., Leibhold, A., Mosena, A., Moser, D., Nentwig, W., Nishino, M., Pearman, D., Pergl, J., Rabitsch, W., Rojas-Sandoval, J., Roques, A., Rorke, S., Rossinelli, S., Roy, H.E., Scalera, R., Schindler, S., Štajerová, K., Tokarska-Guzik, B., Walker, K., Ward, D.F., Yamanaka, T. & Essl, F. (2018). The global rise in emerging alien species results from increased accessibility of new source pools. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA,www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1719429115.

Taylor, G., Ewen, J.G., Clarke, R.H., Blackburn, T.M., Johnson, G., & Ingwersen, D. (2018). Video monitoring reveals novel threat to Critically Endangered captive bred and released Regent Honeyeaters. Emu, in press.



Blackburn, T.M. & Ewen, J.G. (2017). Parasites as drivers and passengers of human-mediated biological invasions. EcoHealth, 14(Suppl 1), 61-73.

Blackburn, T.M., Scrivens, S.L., Heinrich, S. & Cassey, P. (2017). Patterns of selectivity in introductions of mammal species worldwide. NeoBiota, 33, 33-51. doi: 10.3897/neobiota.33.10471.

Dawson, W., Moser, D., van Kleunen, M., Kreft, H., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Weigelt, P., Winter, M., Lenzner, B., Blackburn, T.M., Dyer, E.E., Cassey, P., Scrivens, S. L., Economo, E.P., Guénard, B., Capinha, C., Seebens, H., García-Díaz, P., Nentwig, W., García- Berthou, E., Casal, C., Mandrak, N.E., Fuller P., Meyer, C. & Essl, F. (2017). Global hotspots and correlates of alien species richness across taxonomic groups. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1, 0186. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0186.

Dyer, E.E., Cassey, P., Redding, D.W., Collen, B., Franks, V., Gaston, K.J., Jones, K.E., Kark, S., Orme, C.D.L. & Blackburn, T.M. (2017). The global distribution and drivers of alien bird species richness. PLoS Biology, 15, e2000942.

Dyer, E.E., Redding, D.W. & Blackburn, T.M. (2017). The Global Avian Invasions Atlas, a database of alien bird distributions worldwide. Scientific Data, 4, 170041 doi: 10.1038/sdata.2017.41.

Kumschick, S., Measey, G.J., Vimercati, G., de Villiers, F.A., Mokhatla, M.M., Davies, S.J., Thorp, C.J., Rebelo, A.D., Blackburn, T.M. & Kraus, F. (2017). How repeatable is the Environmental Impact Classification of Alien Taxa (EICAT)? Comparing two independent global impact assessments of amphibians. Ecology & Evolution, 7, 2661 - 2670. DOI 10.1002/ece3.2877

Latombe, G., Pyšek, P., Jeschke, J.M., Blackburn, T.M., Bacher, S., Capinha, C., Costello, M.J., Fernández, M., Gregory, R.D., Hobern, D., Hui, C., Jetz, W., Kumschick, S., MCGrannachan, C., Pergl, J., Roy, H.E., Scalera, R., Squires, Z.E., Wilson, J.R.U., Winter, M., Genovesi, P. & McGeoch, M.A. (2017). A vision for global monitoring of biological invasions. Biological Conservation, 213, 295-308.

Redding, D.W., Lucas, T.C.D., Blackburn, T.M. & Jones, K.E. (2017). Evaluating Bayesian spatial methods for modelling species distributions with clumped and restricted occurrence data. PLoS ONE, e0187602.

Ricciardi, A., Blackburn, T.M., Carlton, J.T., Dick, J.T.A., Hulme, P.E., Iacarella, J.C., Jeschke, J.M., Liebhold, A.M., Lockwood, J.L., MacIsaac, H.J., Pyšek, P., Richardson D.M., Ruiz, G.M., Simberloff, D., Sutherland, W.J., Wardle, D.A., & Aldridge, D.C. (2017). Invasion Science: A horizon scan of emerging challenges and opportunities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 32, 464 - 474.

Russell, J.C. & Blackburn, T.M. (2017). The rise of invasive species denialism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 32, 3 - 6.

Seebens, H., Blackburn, T.M., Dyer, E.E., Genovesi, P., Hulme, P.E., Jeschke, J.M., Pagad, S., Pyšek, P., Winter, M., Arianoutsou, M., Bacher, S., Blasius, B., Brundu, G., Capinha, C., Celesti-Grapow, L., Dawson, W., Dullinger, S., Fuentes, N., Jäger, H., Kartesz, J., Kenis, M., Kreft, H., Kühn, I., Lenzner, B., Leibhold, A., Mosena, A., Moser, D., Nishino, M., Pearman, D., Pergl, J., Rabitsch, W., Rojas-Sandoval, J., Roques, A., Rorke, S., Rossinelli, S., Roy, H.E., Scalera, R., Schindler, S., Štajerová, K., Tokarska-Guzik, B., van Kleunen, M., Walker, K., Weigelt, P., Yamanaka, T. & Essl, F. (2017). No saturation of the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications, 8, 14435.

Wood, J.R., Alcover, J.A., Blackburn, T.M., Bover,. P., Duncan, R.P., Hume, J.P., Louys, J., Meijer, H.J.M., Rando, J.C. & Wilmshurst, J.M. (2017). Island extinctions: processes, patterns, and potential for ecosystem restoration. Environmental Conservation, in press.



Bellard, C., Cassey, P. & Blackburn, T.M. (2016). Biology of Extinction: Alien species as a driver of recent extinctions. Biology Letters, 12, 20150822; doi:10.1098/rsbl.2015.0822.

Blackburn, T.M., Delean, S., Pyšek, P. & Cassey, P (2016). On the island biogeography of aliens: a global analysis of the richness of plant and bird species on oceanic islands. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25, 85 -868 doi: 10.1111/geb.12339

Dyer, E., Franks, V., Cassey, P., Collen, B., Cope, R.C., Jones, K.E., Sekerçioglu, C.H. & Blackburn, T.M. (2016). A global analysis of the determinants of alien geographical range size in birds. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25, 1346–1355.

Evans, T., Kumschick, S. & Blackburn, T.M. (2016). Application of the Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT) to a global assessment of alien bird impacts. Diversity & Distributions, 22, 919–931.

Roques, A., Auger-Rozenberg, M.-A., Blackburn, T.M., Garnas, J., Pyšek, P., Rabitsch, W., Richardson, D.M., Wingfield, M.J., Leibhold, A.M. & Duncan, R.P. (2016). Temporal and interspecific variation in rates of spread for insect species invading Europe during the last 200 years. Biological Invasions, 18, 907-920.

Su, S., Cassey, P. & Blackburn, T.M. (2016). The wildlife pet trade as a driver of introduction and establishment in alien birds in Taiwan. Biological Invasions, 18, 215-229.

Su, S., Cassey, P., Dyer, E.E. & Blackburn, T.M. (2016). Geographic range expansion of alien birds and environmental matching.  Ibis, 159, 193 - 203.

Wilson, J.R.U., Garcia-Diaz, P., Cassey, P., Richardson, D.M., Pyšek, P. & Blackburn, T.M. (2016). Biological invasions and natural invasions are different – the need for invasion science. NeoBiota, 31, 87-98. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.31.9185



Blackburn, T.M., Dyer, E., Su, S. & Cassey, P. (2015). Long after the event, or four things we (should) know about bird invasions. Journal of Ornithology, 156 supplement 1, 15-25. doi 10.1007/s10336-015-1155-z

Blackburn, T.M., Lockwood, J.L. & Cassey, P. (2015). The influence of numbers on invasion success. Molecular Ecology, 24, 1942-1953.

Essl, F., Bacher, S., Blackburn, T.M., Booy, O., Brundu, G., Brunel, S., Cardoso, A.-C., Eshen, R., Gallardo, B., Galil, B., García-Berthou, E., Genovesi, P., Groom, Q., Harrower, C., Hulme, P.E., Katsanevakis, S., Kenis, M., Kühn, I., Kumschick, S., Martinou, A.F., Nentwig, W., O’Flynn, C., Pagad, S., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Rabitsch, W., Richardson, D.M., Roques, A., Roy, H.E., Scalera, R., Schindler, S., Seebens, H., Vanderhoeven, S., Vila, M., Wilson, J.R.U., Zenetos, A. & Jeschke, J.M. (2015). Crossing frontiers in tackling pathways of biological invasions. BioScience, 65, 769-782.

Hawkins, C.L., Bacher, S. Essl, F., Hulme, P.E., Jeschke, J. M., Kühn, I., Kumschick, S., Nentwig, W., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Rabitsch, W., Richardson, D.M., Vilà, M., Wilson, J.R.U., Genovesi, P. & Blackburn, T.M. (2015). Framework and guidelines for implementing the proposed IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT). Diversity & Distributions, 21, 1360 – 1363.

Kumschick, S., Blackburn, T.M. & Richardson, D.M. (2015). Managing alien bird species: Time to move beyond the “100 of the World's Worst” list. Bird Conservation International, 26, 154 – 163.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270915000167.

Kumschick, S., Gaertner, M., Vilà, M., Essl, F., Jeschke, J. M., Pyšek, P., Bacher, S., Blackburn, T.M., Dick, J.T.A., Evans, T., Hulme, P.E., Kühn, I., Mrugała, A., Pergl, J., Rabitsch, W., Ricciardi, A., Richardson, D.M., Sendek, A. & Winter, M. (2014) Ecological impacts of alien species: quantification, scope, caveats and recommendations. BioScience, 65, 55-63.

Pipek, P., Pyšek, P. & Blackburn, T.M. (2015). How the Yellowhammer became a Kiwi: the history of an alien invasion revealed. NeoBiota, 24, 1-31. doi: 10.3897/neobiota.24.8611

Pipek, P., Pyšek, P. & Blackburn, T.M. (2015). A clarification of the origins of birds released by the Otago Acclimatisation Society from 1876 to 1882. Notornis, 62, 105-112.

Su, S., Cassey, P. & Blackburn, T.M. (2015). Going cheap: determinants of bird price in the Taiwanese pet market. PLoS ONE, 10(5): e0127482. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127482.



Blackburn, T.M., Essl, F., Evans, T., Hulme, P.E., Jeschke, J. M., Kühn, I., Kumschick, S., Marková, Z., Mrugała, A., Nentwig, W., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Rabitsch, W., Ricciardi, A., Richardson, D.M., Sendek, A., Vilà, M., Wilson, J.R.U., Winter, M., Genovesi, P. & Bacher, S. (2014). A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts. PLoS Biology, 12, e1001850. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001850.

Blackburn, T.M., Su, S. & Cassey, P. (2014). A potential metric of the attractiveness of bird song to humans. Ethology, 120, 305-312.

Cassey, P., Prowse, T.A.A. & Blackburn, T.M. (2014). A population model for predicting the successful establishment of introduced bird species. Oecologia, 175, 417-428.

Clements, C.F., Collen, B., Blackburn, T.M. & Petchey, O.L. (2014). Effects of recent environmental change on accuracy of inferences of extinction status. Conservation Biology, 28, 971-981.

Clements, C. F., Warren, P.H., Collen, B., Blackburn, T.M. & Petchey, O.L. (2013). Effects of directional environmental change on extinction dynamics in experimental microbial communities are predicted by a simple model. Oikos, 123, 141–150.

Duncan, R.P., Blackburn, T.M., Rossinelli, S. & Bacher, S. (2014). Quantifying invasion risk: the relationship between establishment probability and founding population size. Methods in Ecology & Evolution, 5, 1255-1263.

Evans, T., Kumschick, S., Dyer, E. & Blackburn, T.M.  (2014). Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management. Ecology & Evolution, 4, 2957-2967.

Jeschke, J. M., Bacher, S., Blackburn, T.M., Dick, J. T. A., Essl, F., Evans, T., Gaertner, M., Hulme, P.E., Kühn, I., Mrugała, A., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., Rabitsch, W., Ricciardi, A., Richardson, D.M., Sendek, A., Vilà, M., Winter, M. & Kumschick, S. (2014). Defining the impact of non-native species. Conservation Biology, 28, 1188-1194.

Roy, H.E., Peyton, J., Aldridge, D.C., Bantock, T., Blackburn, T.M., Bishop, J., Britton, R., Clark, P., Cook, E., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Dines, T., Dobson, M., Edwards, F., Harrower, C., Harvey, M.C., Minchin, D., Noble, D.G., Parrott, D., Pocock, M.J.O., Preston, C.D., Roy, S., Salisbury, A., Schönrogge, K., Sewell, J., Shaw, R.H., Stebbing, P., Stewart, A.J. A. & Walker, K.J. (2014). Horizon-scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain. Global Change Biology, 20, 3859-3871.

Su, S., Cassey, P. & Blackburn, T.M. (2014). Patterns of non-randomness in the composition and characteristics of the Taiwanese bird trade. Biological Invasions, 16, 2563-2575.



Berthouly-Salazar, C., Hui, C., Blackburn, T.M., Gaboriaud, C., van Rensburg, B.J., van Vuuren, B.J. & Le Roux, J.J. (2013). Long distance dispersal maximizes evolutionary potential during rapid geographic range expansion. Molecular Ecology22, 5793-5804.

Blackburn, T.M. & Bird, J.P. (2013). The Distribution of Gull (Larus) Species on the Red Sea Coast of Sudan. Scopus32, 10-18.

Blackburn, T.M., Monroe, M.J., Lawson, B., Cassey, P. & Ewen, J.G. (2013). Body size changes in passerine birds introduced to New Zealand from the UK. NeoBiota, 17, 1-18.

Blackburn, T.M., Prowse, T.A.A. Lockwood, J.L. & Cassey, P. (2013). Propagule pressure as a driver of establishment success in deliberately introduced exotic species: fact or artefact? Biological Invasions15, 1459-1469.

Cantú-Salazar, L., Orme, C.D.L., Rasmussen, P. C., Blackburn, T.M.& Gaston, K.J. (2013). The performance of the global protected area system in capturing vertebrate geographic ranges. Biodiversity & Conservation, 22, 1033–1047.

Chauvenet, A.L.M., Ewen, J.G., Armstrong, D.P., Blackburn, T.M.& Petorelli, N. (2013). Maximising the success of assisted colonizations.  Animal Conservation16, 161-169.

Clements, C.F., Warren, P.H., Collen, B., Blackburn, T.M., Worsfold, N.T. & Petchey, O.L. (2013). Interactions between assembly order and environmental change can alter both short and long-term community composition. Ecology and Evolution3, 5201–5208.

Clements, C.F., Worsfold, N.T., Warren, P.H., Collen, B., Clark, N., Blackburn, T.M. & Petchey, O.L. (2013) Experimentally testing the accuracy of an extinction predictor: Solow’s Optimal Linear Estimation Model. Journal of Animal Ecology82, 345-354.

Duncan, R.P., Boyer, A. & Blackburn, T.M.(2013). Magnitude and variation of prehistoric bird extinctions in the Pacific. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA,110, 6436–6441.

Fontoura, P.M., Dyer, E., Blackburn, T.M. & Orsi, M.L. (2014). Non-native bird species in Brazil. Neotropical Biology and Conservation8, 165-175.

Huang, Z.Y.X., de Boer, W.F., van Langevelde, F., Olson, V., Blackburn, T.M. & Prins, H.T. (2013). Species' life history traits explain interspecific variation in reservoir competence: a possible mechanism underlying the dilution effect. PLoS ONE, 8, e54341.

Kumschick, S., Bacher, S. & Blackburn, T.M.  (2013) What determines the impact of alien birds and mammals in Europe? Biological Invasions15, 785-797.

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